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military
wars & agression,
US interventions
arms & covert

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weapons and land mines
  High-energy weapons & environmental modification warfare
  History of military- industrial complex
  Wars in history
  Books

  ""Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword. It both emboldens the blood, just as it narrows the mind. And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry. Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so. How do I know? For this is what I have done. And I am Caesar."
  -- Supposedly attributed to Julius Caesar

  Resources

Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare pdf3.gif (212 bytes)
UN--Constitution--War Crimes
Does U.S. Intervention Overseas Breed Terrorism?  The Historical Record, from CATO Institute 1998 briefing
234 Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798 - 1993. by Ellen C. Collier, Specialist in U.S. Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division, Washington DC: Congressional Research Service -- Library of Congress
A Century of U.S. Military Interventions, From Wounded Knee to Yugoslavia, a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 1999
U. S. Imperialism: A Century of Slaughter, International Socialist Review Issue 7, Spring 1999
Center for Defense Information 
Federation of American Scientists
Union of Concerned Scientists
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
PBS Newshour focus on National Missile Defense
Todd's Atomic Homepage
The U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project
Henry L. Stimson Center
The Nuclear Control Institute
Center for Nonproliferation Studies
Documents from US Joint Chiefs of Staff
Brief Bibliography for U.S. War Crimes, Foreign Policy Watchdog
Defense Monitor  
Book:  Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II
Jane's Defence Weekly
The US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
IHL database: 91 treaties and texts, commentaries on the four Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, an up-to-date list of signatures, ratifications relating to IHL treaties and full text of reservations
"US Intelligence and the End of the Cold War", CIA documents produced by The Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI) of the Central Intelligence Agency and the George W. Bush Center for Presidential Studies at Texas A&M
U.S. Army War College's Strategic Studies Institute
US Army Strategic Studies Institute, Regional Studies--Russia
Art and Science of 15th Century Navigation, Europeans

  Policy

Backing up Globalization with Military Might 
U.S. "Global Leadership" - A Euphemism for World Policeman, foreign policy analyst at the Cato Institute
The Secret Government, by Bill Moyers online text
The Fourth Force - CIA use of Defense Department resources
"Rogue State," by William Blum guide to the world's only superpower
From Private to State Capitalism:   How the Permanent War Economy Transformed the Institutions of American Capitalism
Council for a Liveable World
Military Spending - Weapons Systems - Budget Analysis - Military Force Levels
Confronting the Military-Corporate Complex 
Nuclear Proliferation, News & Analysis - South Asia Resources - Links
Foreign Policy in Focus 
The WTO and the Global War System  .pdf 
U.S. history of war on civilians as a strategy  
Senate Committee Report on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy chaired by Senator John F. Kerry
Rebuilding America's Means of Production - A special ECP publication showing the tradeoffs between necessary industrial investment and military programs, and between infrastructure investments and military programs
US Conversion after the Cold War, 1990-1997
National Commission on Economic Conversion and Disarmament, Fact Sheets
Corporations & Conversion
Government Resources for Economic Conversion
1999 International Grassroots Summit on Military Base Cleanup  to help grassroots community and nationally-based activists cope with the problems of overseas military activities and advance the cause of U.S. responsibility for base cleanup
Children, Conflicts and the Military 
Lies, Damn Lies...& Maps - U.S. bombing of Chinese embassy in Belgrade
U.S. Military and Corporate Recolonization of the Congo 
International Network on Disarmament and Globalization, A to Z Index
Press Release on Human Radiation Experiments 
Foreign Policy In Focus 
Mccaffrey -- Overwhelming Force   
Colin Powell's Legend 
Rogue State A Guide to the World's Only Superpower 
Military Civil Disturbance Planning The War at Home 
Military Expansion 
Military-Industrial Complex revisited Contents 
Info-War Pentagon Invades Cyber-Space  
McCaffrey - fraud in war & peace  
Contracting out the military  
100 top military contractors in U.S.
Economic Conversion Project educating the public on the need and the means for an orderly transfer of military resources to civilian use
Israel and the Bomb By Avner Cohen  
U.S.-Japan Project: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations Since 1960, National Security Archive  
Military Toxics Project on Depleted Uranium 
Fort Ord Toxics Project 
Nuclear History Documentation Project from National Security Archive  
China and the U.S. huge archive from National Security Archive 
Openness in Russia and Eastern Europe Project, The National Security Archive  
Pro-American military-political blocs around Caspian liven up - Russian site 
Central Asia epicenter of global problems 
School of the Americas Watch 
School of the Americas training in arms
Militarizing US/Mexico border

  Chemical-bio weapons and land mines

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Arms Control Treaties, Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Weapons, Arms Control & Disarmament Agency - Council for a Liveable World
Chemical Warfare Agents - An overview of chemicals defined as chemical weapons
Texts of the Chemical Weapons Convention
SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute
Federation of American Scientists Working Group on Biological and Toxin Weapons
Chemical and Biological Database, U.K.
Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention
The CWC in German as well as information on Austrian laws
The UK Chemical Weapons Act of 1996
Australian Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act 1994
Military Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
Japan in Manchuria - Germ warfare timeline - US gave immunity from prosecution for war crimes to get information on germ warfare experiments
The Sunshine Project Research about mycoherbicides, biological weapons
Plan Colombia, in spanish
Apartheid's Poison Legacy: South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program
University of Virginia Chemical and Biological Weapons Web Links
USA's Tell-Tale Silence on the Bioweapons Protocol After torpedoing Kyoto and the ABM Treaty, the US sets its sights on biological weapons control
The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
Biological Weapons and Warfare
Background on bioweapons and Agent Green
Background on Agent Green
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, program reports by country and Text of the Convention
International Court of Justice. 1996. Advisory Opinions on “Legality of the threat or use of Nuclear Weapons”

  High-energy weapons & environmental warfare

High Energy Weapons Archive  
Journal of Electronic Defense, articles on electronic and electromagnetic military technologies 
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program - HAARP
Background of the HAARP Program 
Background of HAARP - Argus, Starfish, SPS: Solar Power Satellite Project, Mighty Oaks, Desert Storm, Poker Flat Rocket Launch, with references
The Military's Pandora's Box  
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques - EMOD
ENMOD Parties and Signatories - May 2001
BRIGHT SKIES Top-Secret Weapons Testing? Were Tesla-style EM weapons used in the Kobe earthquake, the Oklahoma City bombing and the downing of TWA Flight 800, in a secret war between unidentified factions?

  Military-industrial complex

The military-industrial complex - a lengthy history including:
The secrecy behind nuclear weapons, The crumbling of communism in Europe, The Reagan-Bush years, Military spending under Clinton, Military incoompetence, fraud and waste, The "black budget", Star Wars, BMDO, and THADD, License to deal arms, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Chemical weapons, Land mines, Weapons of torture, War as portrayed by motion pictures
Military-Industrial Complex revisited Contents 
Confronting the Military-Corporate Complex
100 top military contractors in U.S.
Military Toxics Project  
Economic Conversion Project educating the public on the need and the means for an orderly transfer of military resources to civilian use
The military-industrial complex - a lengthy history including:
The secrecy behind nuclear weapons, The crumbling of communism in Europe, The Reagan-Bush years, Military spending under Clinton, Military incoompetence, fraud and waste, The "black budget", Star Wars, BMDO, and THADD, License to deal arms, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Chemical weapons, Land mines, Weapons of torture, War as portrayed by motion pictures
  (see military, corporations)

  Wars in history

  (see genocide notesmx.gif (173 bytes), Cold War Era notesmx.gif (173 bytes) )
Books:  Military history books
Smedley Butler on Interventionism -- Excerpt from a speech delivered in 1933, by Major General Smedley Butler, USMC.
A Century of U.S. Military Interventions, From Wounded Knee to Yugoslavia, a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 1999
Let the Bloody Truth Be Told: A Chronology of U.S. Imperialism
Michael Parenti: a concise history of American imperialism
A Timeline of CIA Atrocities
CIA Incursions Throughout the World Iran Vietnam Dominican Republic Guatemala Cuba Chile Indonesia Congo Libya East Timor Brazil
Why War? correspondence between Einstein and Freud
Centre of Military History The United States Army Centre of Military History
Genocide in the 20th Century
Annotated bibliography of books on genocides, Rwanda, Nazi, Bosnia, Armenia, Ukraine, Southwest Africa, Burundi, Cambodia, Bangladesh, East Timor, Kurds, Paraguay Ache, Bengalis, Tibetan Buddhists
Senate Committee Report on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy chaired by Senator John F. Kerry
Some of the banks and airlines used in foreign interventions by US
US Civil War & Emancipation
Books: Slave Trade in America, roots of the Civil War

  European wars

Hundred Years' War
The Crimean War: 1853-1856
Books: Campaigns of Napoleon and Wellington
Spanish Civil War of 1936 - extensive
Italy 1947-1948: Free elections: Hollywood style - US rigs the election
US guerilla war against the Soviet Union
Cold War starting with allied invasion of Soviet Union in 1918, for sixteen months after end of WW I

  NATO war in the Balkans

Doubts on a Massacre: Media Ignore Questions About Incident That Sparked Kosovo War  hot.gif (158 bytes)
Yugoslavia & the Balkans, extensive links from FAIR  
Bringing Democracy to Bosnia-Herzegovina ? CAQ
A U.S.  NGO trained 70,000 volunteers for the mass movement that overthrew Slobodan Milosevic hot.gif (158 bytes)

Washington Finances Ethnic Warfare in the Balkans by Michel Chossudovsky 
  (see Balkans)

  African wars

The Crime of the Congo By Arthur Conan Doyle - Belgium's Leopold killed millions
Rhodesian and S.A. Military History
Boer War - South African War Virtual Library
U.S. Military and Corporate Recolonization of the Congo 
Deadly Legacy: U.S. Arms to Africa and the Congo War  
CIA in the Congo
Current African Conflicts 
Conflicts in Africa 
NY Times and U.S. Missle Attack on Sudan
Apartheid's Poison Legacy: South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program

  Asian-Pacific wars

Ch'ing China: The Opium Wars
A Short History of the Opium Wars
Japan and Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
India-Pakistan
US war in Phillipines - Spanish-American War
Phillipines in the Spanish-American War
Boxer Rebellion, China - US and European powers crush indigenous efforts to throw out foreigners and force "open door" to commerce
Concise Political History of China, including Boxer Rebellion
Sino-Japanese War - Nanjing Massacre
Japan in Manchuria - Germ warfare timeline - US gave immunity from prosecution for war crimes to get information on germ warfare experiments
US seizure of Hawai'i - Kingdom of Hawai'i sovereignty and independence, history
Korean War webs
Sinking of the General Sherman, A US Marine Merchant Ship, Origin of US-Korean war in 1844, US naval attack in 1871, marines in 1888, 1894
US Biological Warfare in Korea
CIA in Indonesia
Two Indonesias, Two Americas   The turmoil in Indonesia has brought to the fore secret military relations between Washington and Jakarta that date back to the 1960s
CIA-military assistance against East Timor
CIA buildup to war against Vietnam
The "killing fields" - "The Friends of Pol Pot" - John Pilger  
The Long Secret Alliance Uncle Sam and Pol Pot - John Pilger  

  World War I

Archive of primary documents from World War I and Oxford mirror site
Internment of Ukrainians in Canada 1914-1920 At the beginning of WW I, thousands of Ukrainian Canadians were designated as "enemy aliens" and sent to forced-labour camps across the country
The Great War
The First World War
Great War and The Shaping of the 20th Century A PBS series about W.W.I.

  World War II

Who Really Won World War II? "The winner of W.W. II, tragically, was not the Allies but instead the theory and practice of the large-scale coercive collectivist state..."
The Enola Gay
Interactive Guide to World War II
Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project Information on the "incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II."
World at War: History of WW 1939 - 1945  information on the second World War containing pre-war history and details of the war
WWII Resources primary documents and source materials including papers, speeches, timelines, and bulletins
HistoryPlace WW 2 and Hitler
Truman and the End of WW 2
The question of the bomb-Was Hiroshima Necessary?
FDR Scandal page (bias)
Pearl Harbor current writing
Pearl Harbor, Mother of All Conspiracies, the book
FDR Scandal page
Nazi Propaganda (1933-1945) - Joseph Goebbels
Hiroshima-Nagasaki photos at Peacewire
Leo Szilard, Interview: "President Truman Did Not Understand."
Albert Einstein - F.B.I. interview
Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Nuclear Weapons - Links
U.S. history of war on civilians as a strategy  

  Cold War
SEE Cold War page notesmx.gif (173 bytes)

  Vietnam
See Vietnam Era page notesmx.gif (173 bytes)

  Mideast-Eurasia wars

Afghanistan
Falklands oil and Mideast wars, an explosive version of the story
See Iraq
The Crusades Bibliography
The Six Day War between Israel and the Arab world in 1967
The war against Iraq and sanctions page
How to Create a War, Hill & Knowlton public relations on Iraq
The BNL affair The story behind the arming of Iraq by western nations, including the US, Britain, Germany and Italy
Operation Desert Storm Ten Years After - National Security Archive 
Iran and Iran-Contra page
The Secret History of the Iran Coup, 1953, from Natinal Security Archive  
The Fourth Force - CIA use of Defense Department resources
CIA in Iran
Iraq-Iran war
Israel and the Bomb By Avner Cohen  
Human Rights Watch report on Israeli atrocities
Alternative Information Center, a Palestinian-Israeli organization
Dartmouth maps tracing the impact of various treaties and wars on Palestinian territory
The Soviet Invasion Years, Russia in Afganistan
Washington's Backing of Afghan Terrorists: Deliberate Policy
Chechnya resources and map
Chechnya: More Blood for Oil, CAQ
War Crimes and Human Rights Violations in Chechnya
Peoples Liberation Struggle in Turkey and Kurdistan
Soviet invasion of Afganistan - 'CIA worked with Pakistan to create Taliban'
US military strikes against Libya

  North-Central-Latin American wars

Early history of New World domination, slavery, genocide
History of the Conquest of Peru, William Prescott, online text
Pedro Texeira and the Colonization of the Amazon, online text
US Civil War & Emancipation
US war with Mexico
The Mexican Revolution
US war over Cuba  - Spanish-American War
Cuba in the Spanish-American War (and Tenth Cavalry of African-Americans that captured San Juan Hill)
CIA war against Cuba
Socialist view of the Bay of Pigs, The Militant
Pentagon Proposed Pretexts for Cuba Invasion - from National Security Archive 
CIA in Chile
Behind the CIA Guatemala Coup 1954
US invasion Dominican Republic
US invasion of Panama-Noriega
Chile Documentation Project, National Security Archives  
Guatamala Documentation Project, National Security Archives 
CIA in Guatemala
CIA in Brazil
Honduras Documentation Project, National Security Archives  
Plan Colombia, in spanish
The Sunshine Project Research about mycoherbicides, biological weapons
Background on bioweapons and Agent Green
Iran-Contra & the Case of Wen Ho Lee how the Reagan-Bush administration built the clandestine ties to communist China, the backdrop of the Wen Ho Lee case
hot.gif (158 bytes)
The Nicaragua Network
Nicaragua - Iran and Iran-Contra page
Liberation Theology, Jesuits, Franciscans, Maryknoll in Central America
Somoza's story of Nicaragua and the Church's role in Marxist rebellion

CIA Narco-colonialism in the 20th Century 
Narco News: Plan Colombia's Mercenaries  
US Fumigation in Colombia and the Third World - A Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860-1980, REVISED DRAFT/Wilson Center, Latin American Program/ Working Paper
Oscar Romero, martyred Archbishop of San Salvador
Falklands
Let the Bloody Truth Be Told: A Chronology of U.S. Imperialism
Michael Parenti: a concise history of American imperialism
The Fourth Force - CIA use of Defense Department resources

  Books

Che Guevara Reader - Writings on Guerrilla Warfare, Politics & Revolution,  edited by David Deutschmann
The Spanish Anarchists : The Heroic Years 1868-1936 by Murray Bookchin
On Killing : The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War by Dave Grossman
Brief Bibliography for U.S. War Crimes, Foreign Policy Watchdog
The U.S. Invasion of Panama - The Truth Behind Operation 'Just Cause' - The Independent Commission of Inquiry on the U.S. Invasion of Panama
The War on Islam , the Wisdom Fund - "$500 billion of unnecessary spending went to fight the bogey of Islamic fundamentalism"  "exposes the hype about rogue states, Islamic terrorism and human rights used to justify the war on Islam"
The War Against Oblivion,   John Ross-  Mexico's agrarian poor - a comprehensive analysis of the world's most unorthodox guerrilla movement and a stirring account of the Zapatistas' struggle for justice.
The Cuban Exile Movement - Dissidents or mercenaries? by Hernando Calvo and Katlijn Declercq - Based on an extraordinary series of interviews with leaders of the Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) and other extremist exile organizations, this book exposes their links to the CIA and terrorist activities against Cuba
To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia by Michael Parenti
The War for Palestine : Rewriting the History of 1948 (Cambridge Middle East Studies, 15) by Eugene L. Rogan (Editor), Avi Shlaim (Editor), Edward W.
Said (Afterword)
Real Terror Network : Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda by Edward S. Herman
Against Empire, Michael Parenti
Rogue State -A Guide to the World's Only Superpower, by William Blum
Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen
Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II by William Blum

Global Circle.net home page   "Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason?
     Why, if it prosper, none dare call it treason."

    ~ Sir John Harrington (1561-1612)


"Learn the facts, teach our young, lest we forget... "

     "Control the information and you control the way people think. Thus, you can convince the American public that tiny, backward countries like Grenada and Nicaragua pose a serious military threat to the United States; that the US does not carry out wars against the population of a country, but rather, against satanic individuals, like Gaddafi, Noriega, Hussein, and Aidid. The total number of people we kill is kept from us, lest the American public get weak of heart. That international law is meant to be broken by the US when it suits our needs is a given, as in Panama. The murder of several thousand fleeing Iraqis is a direct violation of the Geneva convention, but so what? It was, in the words of a jet pilot involved in the mass murder, "A real turkey shoot!"(85) If the issue is never discussed by our media, it never reaches the status of being an issue. "
     "My purpose in relating this all too brief history to you is to inform. My own ignorance of the facts led me willingly to the battlefields of Vietnam. When the next war comes, and it will, I want you to  question everything the government tells you. This isn't the military, where you are trained not to question authority or think about the consequences of your actions. We owe it to the young men and women who will be fighting and dying in the next war to hold our government and military officials responsible for their decisions. But more than this, we owe it to ourselves to seek out the history of our previous military interventions, learn the facts, teach our young, lest we forget... "
     -- from "How the U.S. Got Involved In Vietnam" By Jeff Drake